Manufacture and Mechanical Behavior of Green Polymeric Composite Reinforced with Hydrated Cotton Fiber
Composites using natural fibers as reinforcement and biodegradable polymers as matrix are considered environmentally friendly materials. This paper seeks the mechanical and morphological characterization of a biocomposite of polyurethane (PU) derived from a blend of vegetable oils doped with alumina
trihydrate (ATH) and reinforced with hydrated cotton fiber fabric (HCF). The comparison and study were performed based on the properties of the: (i) pure PU; (ii) PU doped with ATH containing 30% of the final mass (PU+30%ATH); (iii) composite of PU reinforced with 7 layers of cotton fiber fabric (PU+7CF); (iv) composite of PU+30%ATH reinforced with 7 layers of CF (PU+30%ATH+7CF); (v) composite of PU+30%ATH reinforced with 7 layers of hydrated cotton fiber fabric (PU+30%ATH+7HCF). The mechanical properties obtained according to the tensile test for the composite PU+30%ATH+CF with fibers oriented at 0° showed a significant increment in tensile strength (60 MPa) and the modulus of elasticity (4.7 GPa) when compared to pure PU (40 MPa) and (1.7 GPa) respectively. PU+30%ATH also presented a rising tensile strength (31 MPa) and Young modulus (2.6 GPa). For the composite with addition of water, results presented a significant decrease in strength (31.3 MPa) and stiffness (0.9 GPa) than the composite with no water. Electron microscopy (SEM) analyses exhibited that the samples with addition of water showed the presence of large amounts of pores and the lower interaction between matrix and fiber. These results may explain the lower mechanical properties of this material.
J. M. Marcum, “Technical Note: Materials: the economic implications,” Int. J. Mater. Prod. Technol., vol. 5, no. 2, pp. 191–195, 1990.
F. Vilaplana, E. Strömberg, and S. Karlsson, “Environmental and resource aspects of sustainable biocomposites,” Polym. Degrad. Stab., vol. 95, pp. 2147– 2161, 2010.
E. P. Calegar and B. F. de Oliveira, “Composites from renewable sources as an alternative for product development,” Sustentabilidade em Debate, vol. 7, pp. 140–155, 2016.
C. Unterweger, O. Brüggemann, and C. Fürst, “Synthetic fibers and
thermoplastic short‐fiber‐reinforced polymers: Properties and characterization,” Polym. Compos., vol. 35, pp. 227–236, 2014.
D. O. Castro, E. Frollini, and J. Marini, “Preparation and Characterization of Biocomposites Based on Curaua Fibers, High-density Biopolyethylene (HDBPE) and Liquid Hydroxylated Polybutadiene(LHPB),” Polímeros, vol. 23, pp. 65–73, 2013.
G. Canche-Escamilla, J. I. Cauich-Cupul, E. Mendizabal, J. E. Puig, H. Vazquez- Torres, and P. J. Herrera-Franco, “Mechanical properties of acrylate-grafted henequen cellulose fibers and their application in composites,” Compos. Part A, vol. 30, pp. 349–359, 1999.
M. Koziol, A. Bogdan-Wlodek, J. Myalski, and J. Wieczorek, “Influence of wet chemistry treatment on the mechanical performance of natural fibres,” Polish J. Chem. Technol., vol. 13, no. 4, pp. 21–27, 2011.
W. O. Ogola, H. J. Mcrota, and J. O. Owuor, “Industrial processing model for natural fibre composites to meet ISO 9001:2000 standards,” Int. J. Mater. Prod. Technol., vol. 36, pp. 200–207, 2009.
R. Silva, S. K. Haraguchi, E. C. Muniz, and A. F. Rubira, “Applications of lignocellulosic fibers in polymer chemistry and in composites,” Quim. Nova, vol. 32, pp. 661–671, 2009.
A. A. Nunes, A. S. Franca, and L. S. Oliveira, “Activated carbons from waste biomass: An alternative use for biodiesel production solid residues,” Bioresour. Technol., vol. 100, no. 5, pp. 1786–1792, Mar. 2009.
X. Guan, Q. Song, and Z. J. Chen, “Polyploidy and small RNA regulation of cotton fiber development,” Trends Plant Sci., vol. 19, no. 8, pp. 516–528, Aug. 2014.
C. W. Smith and J. T. Cothren, Cotton : Origin, History, Technology and Production. New York: John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 1999.
P. P. Gohil and A. A. Shaikh, “Cotton-epoxy composites: development and mechanical characterization,” Key Eng. Mater., vol. 471–472, pp. 291–296, 2011.
S. K. Bajpai, G. Mary, and N. Chand, “The use of cotton fibers as reinforcements in composites,” in Biofiber Reinforcements in Composite Materials, 2015, pp. 320–341.
M. R. Yates and C. Y. Barlow, “Life cycle assessments of biodegradable, commercial biopolymers—A critical review,” Resour. Conserv. Recycl., vol. 78,pp. 54–66, Sep. 2013.
R. R. C. da Costa, R. de Medeiros, M. L. Ribeiro, and V. Tita, “Experimental and numerical analysis of single lap bonded joints: Epoxy and castor oil PU glass fiber composites,” J. Adhes., vol. 93, pp. 77–94, 2016.
F. R. M. Leite and L. T. O. Ramalho, “Bone regeneration after demineralized bone matrix and castor oil (ricinus communis) polyurethane implantation,” J. Appl. Oral Sci., vol. 16, pp. 122–126, 2008.
H. J. G. Haynes, Fire Loss in the United States During 2016. Quincy: National Fire Protection Association, 2017.
S. Bhoyate, M. Ionescu, P. K. Kahol, and R. K. Gupta, “Sustainable flameretardant polyurethanes using renewable resources,” Ind. Crops Prod., vol. 123,
pp. 480–488, Nov. 2018.
J. W. Gooch, Ed., “Alumina trihydrate,” in Encyclopedic Dictionary of Polymers, New York: Springer New York, 2007, p. 45.
G. Liu, B. Zhou, Y. Li, T. Qi, and X. Li, “Surface properties of superfine alumina trihydrate after surface modification with stearic acid,” Int. J. Miner. Metall. Mater., vol. 22, no. 5, pp. 537–542, 2015.
W. E. Horn, “Inorganic hydroxides and hydroxycarbonates: their function and use as flame-retardant additives,” in Fire retardancy of polymeric materials, New York: Marcel Dekker Inc, 2000, pp. 285–352.
M. R. Sanjay, P. Madhu, M. Jawaid, P. Senthamaraikannan, S. Senthil, and S. Pradeep, “Characterization and properties of natural fiber polymer composites: A comprehensive review,” J. Clean. Prod., vol. 172, pp. 566–581, Jan. 2018.
C. Borsoi, L. C. Scienza, A. J. Zattera, and C. C. Angrizani, “Obtainment and Characterization of Composites using Polystyrene as Matrix and Fiber Waste from Cotton Textile Industry as Reinforcement,” Polímeros, vol. 21, pp. 271– 279, 2011.
M. Szycher, Szycher’s Handbook of Polyurethanes, 2nd ed. Boca Raton: Taylor & Francis Group, 2013.
ASTM, D3039/D3039M - Standard Test Method for Tensile Properties of Polymer Matrix Composite Materials System. West Conshohocken: ASTM -
American Standard Test Method, 2014.
A. A. X. da Silva, E. H. P. da Silva, D. B. Janes, S. M. Domiciano, and R. R. C. da Costa, “Mechanical behavior of composite of polyurethane reinforced with cotton fiber and alumina trihydrate,” in 24th ABCM International Congress of Mechanical Engineering, 2017, pp. 1–10.
- There are currently no refbacks.
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License.