# Disability, Economy and the Limits of Inclusive Education

### Resumo

This report arises from my 5 year long and ongoing research study with blind children in a learning centre located in Mumbai. I highlight certain difficult situations that I encountered albeit with a specific aim of presenting the contradictions they revealed. I focus on the case of two of my students who although scored well in their exams and aspired to pursue higher mathematics ended up having to give up their mathematical aspirations. Through reflecting on these stories and the contradictions they revealed, I question to what extent is the problem of disability just a matter of ableist discrimination. A conclusion of the research presented in this article is that the economic dimension of disability and exclusion poses limits to how much ableism can be addressed through the route of special education.

### Referências

Borgioli, G. M. (2008). A critical examination of learning disabilities in mathematics: Applying the lens of ableism. Journal of Thought, Spring-Summer:131–147.

Burris, V. (1988). Reification: A marxist perspective. California Sociologist, 10(1):22–43.

Campbell, F. K. (2001). Inciting legal fictions: ’disability’s’ date with ontology and the ableist body of the law. Griffith Law Review, 10(1):42–62.

Campbell, F. K. (2009). Contours of Ableism: The production of disability and abledness. Palgrave Macmillan, New York.

Corker, M. (1998). Disability discourse in a postmodern world. In Shakespeare, T., editor, The Disability Reader. Continuum, NY.

D’Souza, R. (2016a). Ableism and the ideology of merit. for the learning of mathematics, 36(3):21–23.

D’Souza, R. (2016b). Where did/do mathematical concepts come from? for the learning of mathematics, 36(1):25–27.

Fernandes, S. H. A. A. and Healy, L. (2013). Multimodality and mathematical meaning-making: Blind students’ interactions with symmetry. International Journal for Research in Mathematics Education, 3(1):36–55.

Figueiras, L., Healy, L., and Skovsmose, O. (2016). Difference, inclusion and mathematics education: Launching a research agenda. International Journal for Studies in Mathematics Education, 9(3):15–35.

Finkelstein, V. (1981). Disability and the helper/helped relationship. http://disability-studies.leeds.ac.uk/files/library/finkelstein-Helper-Helped-Relationship.pdf. Retrieved: 2017-08-03.

Finkelstein, V. (2007). The ‘social model of disability’ and the disability movement. https://disability-studies.leeds.ac.uk/wp-content/uploads/sites/40/library/finkelstein-The-Social-Model-of-Disability-and-the-Disability-Movement.pdf. Retrieved: 12-12-2018.

Harvey, D. (2014). Seventeen contradictions and the end of capitalism. Profile books, London.

Healy, L. and Fernandes, S. H. A. A. (2011). The role of gestures in the mathematical practices of those who do not see with their eyes. Educational Studies in Mathematics, 77(2/3):157–174.

Hehir, T. (2002). New Directions in Special Education: Eliminating Ableism in Policy and Practice. Harvard Educational Press, Cambridge, MA.

Jaffee, L. (2016). Marxism and disability studies. In Jaffee, L., editor, Encyclopedia of Educational Philosophy and Theory. Springer, Singapore.

Keller, H. (1920). The modern woman. In Helen Keller, editor, Out of the dark. Doubleday, Page & Company, NY.

Marcone, R. (2015). Deficiencialismo: a invenção da deficiência pela normalidade [Deficiencialismo: An invention of disability by normality]. PhD thesis. Doctoral dissertation, Universidade Estadual Paulista, Rio Claro, Brazil.

Marx, K. (1863). Theories of surplus value. https://www.marxists.org/archive/marx/works/1863/theories-surplus-value/ch17.htm. Retrieved: 10-11-2018.

Marx, K. (1990). Capital Vol I. Penguin, London.

Oliver, M. and Barnes, C. (2012). The New Politics of Disablement. Palgrave Macmillan, New York.

Pais, A. (2013). An ideology critique of the use-value of mathematics. Educational Studies in Mathematics, 84:15–34.

Pais, A. (2014). Economy: the absent centre of mathematics education. ZDM Mathematics Education, 46:1085–1093.

Radford, L. (2013). Perceiving with the eyes and with the hands. International Journal for Research in Mathematics Education – RIPEM, 3(1):56–77.

Skovsmose, O. (2005). Foregrounds and politics of learning obstacles. for the learning of mathematics, 25(1):4–10.

Skovsmose, O. (2016). What could critical mathematics education mean for different groups of students? for the learning of mathematics, 36(1):2–7.

Skovsmose, O. and Borba, M. (2004). Research methodology and critical mathematics education. In Valero, P. and Zevenbergen, R., editors, Researching the Socio-Political Dimensions of Mathematics Education: : Issues of power in theory and methodology. Springer, Boston, MA.

Slorach, R. (2016). A very Capitalist Condition: A history and politics of disability. Bookmarks Publications, London.

UPIAS (1976). Fundamental Principles of Disability. Union of the Physically Impaired Against Segregation, London.

Vygotsky, L. (1925). Principles of social education for deaf and dumb children in russia. International conference on the education of the deaf, pages 227–237.

**Perspectivas da Educação Matemática**, v. 11, n. 27, 28 fev. 2019.