Hydrogenation of Biomass-derived 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) over Pd Catalysts in Aqueous Medium
- Aqueous medium hydrogenation,
- carbon nanotube/charcoal composite,
- Palladium nanoparticles
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We hydrogenated biomass-derived 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) in aqueous medium in a reaction catalyzed by palladium nanoparticles (Pd) on carbonaceous materials with different morphology and hydrophobic degree. The Pd catalysts were prepared by dipping the carbonaceous material into a Pd0 micro-emulsion. The catalyst support affected catalytic HMF hydrogenation. By using micrometric active carbon (AC) combined with cup-stacked carbon nanotubes (CSCNTs) and Pd, we obtained a micro/nanostructured material designated Pd/CSCNT-AC, which performed better than the other carbonaceous materials containing similar Pd loading. Pd/CSCNT-AC catalyzed HMF hydrogenation at the C=O double bond more selectively, giving between 85% and 99% selectivity toward 2,5-bis(hydroxymethyl)furan (BHMF). We also investigated how temperature, hydrogen pressure, and reaction time affected HMF hydrogenation.